Quality in higher education is not a simple one-dimensional notion about academic quality. It is a multi-dimensional concept in view of its varied stakeholders’ needs and expectations.
The World Declaration on Higher Education for the Twenty First Century: Vision and Action (October 1998), Article 11, Qualitative Evaluation considers quality in higher education as “a multi-dimensional concept, which should embrace all its functions, and activities; teaching and academic programmes, research and scholarship, staffing, students, buildings, facilities, equipment, services to the community and the academic environment. Internal self-evaluation and external review, conducted openly by independent specialists, if possible with international expertise, are vital for enhancing quality.”
To develop, implement, maintain and improve the level of quality in higher education, a university needs to install a quality assurance system. The Regional Report of Asia and the Pacific (UNESCO, 2003b) defines quality assurance in higher education as “systematic management and assessment procedures to monitor performance of higher education institutions”.